This project situated the wealth of decarbonisation analysis and modelling exercises undertaken in South Africa within a multi-disciplinary and social systems perspective, to tease out and communicate the critical milestones and decision points of positive, credible socio-economic decarbonisation pathways to 2050 for the country. The project’s emphasis was on identifying and demonstrating ways in which, from the current starting point, the country can retain optionality and create resilience in the face of rapid change and uncertainty to thrive in a net zero future, particularly in the context of high-emitting assets in the petrochemicals sector.